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Comparison of SCHEME DESIGN on our case studies
RomeRome has implemented a complex Access Control System. The first scheme, supported by electronic gates, was implemented in 2001, in order to safeguard the central area of the city (“ZTL centro” in figure below ). After two years since the implementation of the central LTZ scheme, once the automatic system had been tested and fine tuned, other “sensitive areas” and “sensitive time bands” have been identified and a decision to limit car traffic has been issued and implemented according to a daily and night scheme. The charging scheme was modified in January 2007, according to the following data:
The charging scheme was modified in January 2007, according to the following data:
In the following picture all LTZs are represented on the Rome map as well as the other two internal PGTU zones: the Rail Ring and the Green Belt.
The latest achievements:
Further to this a new LTZ night scheme has been implemented in “Rione Monti” .
The scheme implemented in Rome in first instance is geographically located in the central area of the city and in the neighbouring areas.
Congestion Charging was introduced in Central London on 17th February 2003. The Western Extension was implemented on 19th February 2007. Capita Group is currently responsible for certain operational aspects of the scheme under contract to TfL. In late 2009 the functions undertaken by Capita Group will pass to IBM.
Figure 2 2 - Central London Congestion Charging Zone (including the Western Extension)
At a strategic level the London Congestion Charge is a traffic management scheme. Its clear intention is to control traffic flow in the Central area of London. It is the largest fully operational existing Congestion Charging scheme in the United Kingdom.
The daily charge
TfL also list 100% exemptions, subject to registration and a £10 (€12) administration fee, for electric, and bio-fuel vehicles.
The charging scheme is formally a congestion tax for the Stockholm inner city zone. Tax is levied when entering or leaving the zone.
Vehicles that only by-pass Stockholm via road E4 Essingelink are not subject to the congestion tax. When driving to or from Lidingö island, anyone who cross by any of the three control points at the Lidingö bridge as well as an additional control point in the city within 30 minutes is also exempted from the congestion tax. The reason for this is that the only connection from Lidingö municipality to the national road network runs through the city.
Eighteen control points are set up at Stockholm city entrance and exit roads. Vehicles are registered automatically both on the way in and out of the inner city zone. The traffic flow is not affected as drivers do not have to stop or slow down when crossing a control point. There are two ways to identify vehicles
During the trial, payment was to be registered in the SRA congestion tax account no later than five days after the passage of a control point. From 1 June 2006, this was extended to 14 days. The tax could be paid in several different ways, and additional options were made available as time went along. Most people paid automatically via direct debit by using a transponder, but it was also possible to pay over the counter at Pressbyrå kiosks or 7-Eleven shops throughout the country, via the Internet using a credit or charge card, at banks or via Internet banking. No invoice was sent out and information about the amount to be paid could be obtained through Customer Services, via the full-scale trial website or when paying at a Pressbyrå kiosk or 7-Eleven. Payment was/is not possible at the control points.
During the permanent scheme monthly payments by invoice have been introduced, which is a good customer-oriented improvement as well as necessary to reduce transaction costs. Possibilities to pay manually at kiosks have been removed.
During the trial, if the congestion tax is not paid in time, the vehicle owner receives a reminder by mail, including a SEK 70 (€7) service charge. This service charge along with the tax was to be paid within four weeks from the day of passage. If this was not paid in time the vehicle owner was sent an additional reminder with a SEK 200 (€20) surcharge. The tax, service charge and surcharges had to be paid within a month from the date on which the surcharges have been decided. Unpaid tax decisions and charges were then remitted to the Enforcement Service, which added another SEK 500 (€50) handling fee for debt collection. Now during the permanent scheme, the passages are registered in month 1, a tax decision invoiced by the end of month 2 and payment is due at the end of month 3. If payment is not made in time, a surcharge of SEK 500 (€50) is added.
The congestion tax law applies only to vehicles registered in Sweden with the following exceptions:
The scheme actions have been foreseen for both freight operators by implementing access rules depending on pollution categories and pricing policies for permanent permits, and all citizens with a pay to access ticketing system.
The Freight Delivery Plan promotes a step-by-step approach.
The first step concluded with the introduction of faster procedures in the release of access permissions, new pricing policies and the enforcement of new policies related to city centre access (i.e. during late 2008 and first months of 2009, specific time slots will be identified to access both the T and LTZ area) in order to increase efficiency in freight transport and decrease the unauthorised use of permits granted for freight transport.
The new tariffs plan for annual delivery permits, according to pollution level norms, as follows:
a) “single car plate” permits (only 1 vehicle associated to the permit)
b) “ multi car plates ” permits (2 or 3 vehicles associated to the permit)
c) “no car plate” permits (more than 3 vehicles associated to the permit), vehicles are considered by default “non eco” and the permits costs 300 €/year.
Only 1 vehicle at a time can access the LTZ and the enforcement is performed by the IT camera system.
The second step was the launch of the “pay-to-access” LTZ area service.
Tickets were introduced to allow people not permanently entitled to enter the LTZ area to access it occasionally. In this sense, they represent a flexible way to grant everybody (even if with several restrictions) to access the city centre.
To avoid an increase in overall accesses to the LTZ area, such tickets are sold in small numbers. There are two type of tickets:
Each month, only 3 daily tickets (or just one 4-days ticket) can be validated for the same vehicle. These tickets can be bought by operators and citizens.For validation of the ticket the holder sends a secret code and car plate number via sms, web or call centre: if the process is valid, the vehicle is authorised to cross the IT camera control.
The third step (in progress) will be centred on the set up of a “Technological transit point” (i.e. lorry sharing) which will be initially tested in a specific area of the LTZ zone. Besides the physical transit point, a new IT platform will be developed and deployed to analyse freight transport flows and rationalise routes, loading procedures of the involved vehicles and management (i.e. booking) of specific parking slots for loading and unloading.
OsloThe Oslo toll ring is located 5-8 km from the city centre. It has been in operation since 1990, with only minor changes. There are 19 toll plazas. Some of them are placed on the main roads into Oslo, whereas some smaller plazas are placed on smaller roads to create a water-tight toll ring (see figure below). All car drivers must pass the toll ring when they drive in the direction of the city centre. The toll must be paid 24 hours a day all year round including weekends and holidays. There is no extra peak surcharge.
In March 2008 a new road user charging system, step 1 of Oslo package 3, passed Parliament. Fares were increased in the existing toll ring, and some new toll plazas were put up west of the existing ring. The new toll plazas started operation in October 2008. Following Oslo package 3, all toll plazas have been made fully automated.
The fee is collected from all vehicles with the following exceptions:
The proposed means to addressing congestion and providing high quality public transport alternatives to car use is a road user charging scheme for central Bristol and Bath. The operational arrangements are still to be confirmed, but a weekday morning road user charge during the peak period (possibly 7am – 10am) could be implemented, with a daily charge of around £4 (€4.80).Outside of central Bristol and Bath, the North Fringe area of Bristol also suffers from acute congestion. The dispersed nature of the key employment hubs in the Greater Bristol area, and the mix of businesses, housing and other land uses, makes the North Fringe area of Bristol less well suited to a cordon or area-licence-type road user charging scheme. However it is recognised that these congestion ‘hotspots’ needs to be addressed and the suitability of a workplace parking levy has been investigated as part of the TIF development work.
Instead of a congestion charge, the Spitsmijden project aimed at measuring the effect of positive stimuli on commuters’ behaviour. In total, 340 drivers accepted the challenge to try to avoid driving during peak hours (7.30 a.m. – 9.30 a.m.). 98% of them lived in Zoetermeer and 56% of them worked in The Hague.
After subscribing and filling out several forms about personal characteristics and preferences, the participants were able to choose from two variants: a monetary reward varying from €3 to €7, or the right to become the Yeti smart phone owner after the experiment.
EVI beacons were positioned along the main exit roads of Zoetermeer (see map) together with camera systems for number plate registration. If a participant had passed under one of these check points between 7:30 AM and 9:30 AM on working days, the period with the highest traffic densities, no reward would have assigned.
The main rules of the trial were the following:
In order to measure the participants’ normal behaviour, short reference periods before and after the test were inconspicuously added to the experiment.
Participants with a Yeti smart phone disposed of a website that had been customized for the trial. In this way, they were able to see the actual travel times in minutes between Zoetermeer and Prins Clausplein in The Hague. The idea was that they would have to use this information for their travel decisions. The maximum number of rewards per week derived from the comparison with the rush-our travel frequency during the reference situation. In the monetary variant, the participant was rewarded with a daily amount of €3 or €7 for not being registered between 07.30 and 09.30h. Also a varying scheme was conducted:
Participants with a Yeti smart phone disposed of a website that had been customized for the trial. In this way, they were able to see the actual travel times in minutes between Zoetermeer and Prins Clausplein in The Hague. The idea was that they would have to use this information for their travel decisions.
The maximum number of rewards per week derived from the comparison with the rush-our travel frequency during the reference situation.
In the monetary variant, the participant was rewarded with a daily amount of €3 or €7 for not being registered between 07.30 and 09.30h. Also a varying scheme was conducted:
In the Yeti variant, the participant was rewarded with the right to keep the smart phone Yeti, which was put at his/her disposal during the experiment. In this case the participant needed to avoid rush-hours for a certain given number of times. Also a so-called Yeti-variant was conducted; in this case the participant received only traffic-information on his smart phone.
Durham’s congestion charging zone is one depicted by a cordon-based scheme, where drivers must pay to enter a fixed zone. Essentially the scheme covers just one road, Saddler Street, which provides access to Durham’s World Heritage site on Durham’s peninsula. The road provides access to the Market Place, Cathedral and castle, but was also being used as a temporary car park by shoppers, with the driver staying in the vehicle while the passenger visited the shops.
The £2 (€2.40) charge is payable on exit from the area between 10:00am and 4:00pm Monday to Saturday. Entrance and exit from the area is free at all other times.
There are a number of categories of road users who are exempted from the charge:
EdinburghThe final charging scheme consisted of two cordons at which a charge would be levied for vehicles travelling inbound, towards the city centre. There would be an outer cordon around the edge of the built-up area of Edinburgh, just inside the outer city bypass, and an inner cordon around the centre of the city, broadly encompassing the World Heritage Site (see figure below). The outer cordon would operate between 7am and 10am only; the inner between 7am and 6.30pm, Mondays to Fridays in both cases. The finish time of 6.30pm was amended from 7pm following early stages of consultation, and proposed charges at the outer cordon in the evening peak period were also dropped following consultation.
Ecopass started on 2nd January 2008 and consists of a charge applied to vehicles circulating within the city centre area during working days (Monday to Friday) from 7.30 a.m. to 7.30 p.m. (7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. from 15th April 2008).The figure below shows the Limited Traffic Zone that includes the area within the city walls. This zone has been chosen because within it are 12% of daily car trips of the whole municipality; secondly, it is the area most served by public transport; and thirdly, it is easily managed due to the low number of possible access points (43 in total).
The Ecopass ticket is required for:
Each vehicle has its registration book for the European Directive and with the information inside this document it is possible to identify the Euro Category and the corresponding pollution class.After having recognised the pollution class of the vehicle, the user will pay the charge (from 2€ to 10€ for daily entrance) corresponding to a certain level of PM10 emissions his vehicle is characterised by.
Types of Ecopass and Ecopass charges
Daily EcopassWith a daily Ecopass the user can enter the Ecopass Area all day as many times as he/she pleases. The charge can be paid on the first day of entry or until midnight on the following day.
There is also a multiple Ecopass, worth €20, €50 or €100, which entitles the holder to enter on different days, without having to pay a daily Ecopass charge.The multiple entry Ecopass allows the holder to enter the Ecopass area on 50 – not necessarily consecutive – days, with a 50% reduction on the daily Ecopass charge and for a further 50 days with a 40% reduction. There are no multiple entry reductions from the 101st day onwards. Moreover reductions only apply to passenger vehicles, while buses, multi-purpose vehicles and goods vehicles are excluded.
Optional Yearly Ecopass for “Cerchia dei Bastioni” LTZ Residents
Residents of the Cerchia dei Bastioni LTZ – Ecopass Area can apply for a yearly Ecopass at reduced rates for their own vehicles. The charge can be paid at any time until midnight on the day after the first entry. The yearly Ecopass is valid for the whole of 2008 and gives residents access to the Ecopass Area. Application and payment are subject to a check on vehicle ownership and residence via the applicant’s Tax Code.
Residents of the Cerchia dei Bastioni LTZ - Ecopass Area include:
The Ecopass can be obtained at authorised ATM (Azienda Trasporti Milanesi) shops, tobacconists, newsagents. To pay the Ecopass charge it is enough to follow the instructions on the back of the card, or call a free phone number (from 7am to 8pm, Monday to Saturday), or use Mastercard, Moneta and VISA credit cards by going on the Ecopass website (www.comune.milano.it/Ecopass), or utilize an automatic cash dispenser of the Intesa-SanPaolo circuit, or, finally, opt for a current account payment.
If someone drives in the Cerchia dei Bastioni Limited Traffic Zone - Ecopass Area without having paid the corresponding Ecopass charge by midnight on the day following entry, or if the user pays a lower pollution class than the one corresponding to the vehicle, or if he/she is not authorized to circulate, the penalty charge will range from 70 euros to 275 euros.
The same penalty charge is applied to any vehicle over 7 metres long entering the Ecopass area.
There is no Ecopass charge for:
In the first week of the Ecopass drivers had difficulty finding and/or paying for the necessary ticket, which can be purchased in various denominations at dispensers throughout the city, at some banks and over the internet. However in the second week, when business returned to normal in the city after the Christmas festivities, the major problems seemed to have been overcome. After almost a year it seems that citizens have got acquainted with Ecopass.
The Bergen toll ring started operation with six toll plazas on the main roads into the city centre. Until 2001 the operation of the system was on weekdays from 6AM to 10PM. The hours of operation were not based on a road pricing approach, but more on a cost versus revenue consideration of a 24-7 operation. With the prolongation of the ring in 2001, 24-hour operation was introduced on weekdays.
Gradually, the system has expanded to make the burden more equally split. In 2006, a second ring was introduced and later the ring was made fully automated with the use of the Auto-PASS system. All car drivers must pass the toll ring when they drive in the direction of the city centre. Tolls must be paid 24 hours a day all year round including weekends and holidays. There is no extra peak surcharge. Drivers are only charged for one trip per hour and there is a maximum payment of 50 trips per month for users of the Auto-Pass system.
The Transport Innovation Fund (TIF)
Cambridgeshire has been awarded a total of £2.4 million (€2.9 million) of TIF funding to date1].Cambridgeshire also submitted a further bid for £500m (€600m) in October 2007 for a TIF Congestion Charging Scheme. Investigation and public engagement continues.
The proposed charging scheme in Cambridge would have the following criteria:
1]Cambridgeshire has been awarded £1.4 million (€1.7 million) (pump-priming) for study work and £1m (€1.2m) support work to date; (Robert Tuckwell’s presentation 25th February 2008).
Dutch National Case
In the present situation people are paying for car ownership and car use in six ways:
In the preferred final situation after introducing “Paying for use of the road” there will be a very low car tax. The luxury taxation (BPM), road tax and surtax for provincial authorities are abolished. Other taxations remain as they are now.
The principle of the system is based on paying per kilometre on all Dutch roads, differentiated according to time, place and environmental factors. The level of charge is unknown yet. There will be exceptions for: fire-brigade, police, (animal-) ambulance, motorcycles and cars that do not pay taxes now.The Parliamentary requires cost constraint of 5% operational costs.
How would it have worked?
Unlike the London all-day congestion charging scheme, the Manchester plan was intended to target motorists on the busiest routes at peak times during weekdays. It comprised two orbital rings or charging points or zones around the city centre.
Motorists would only be charged if their journey took them across one of the charging points. If you crossed a charging point outside the pricing times, you would not be charged.
How would the revenue have been used?
One of the conditions for funding any proposed scheme was that any revenue raised would be re-invested into public transport schemes.
The TIF investment package would have been made up of £1.5 billion (€1.8 billion) grant from the Government’s TIF together with £1.2 billion (€1.4 billion) borrowings which would have been paid back over 30 years from congestion charging and public transport revenues. In addition, the Department for Transport would fund additional train carriages and there would be a further £100 million (€120 million) from other sources.
Following the summer 2008 consultation, AGMA also agreed:
It was also proposed that vehicles would only pay once to cross a ring in each charging period regardless of how many times they had crossed that ring. This meant that the maximum daily charge would be £5 (€6) per day (at 2007 prices).
AGMA also proposed that, until public transport improvements could be put in place (expected to be 2016) workers based at the Trafford Park industrial area would receive a 100% discount for any outer ring charges.
Proposals to support low income workers with a discount, including public transport, were considered in public consultation. Following the consultation AGMA proposed that low-paid workers (based on statutory minimum wage) would receive a 20% discount on the congestion charge for a minimum period of 2 years when the impact of these proposals would be evaluated. Low-paid workers would also receive a 20% discount on public transport fares at peak times.
Before the public referendum three out of the ten local Metropolitan Borough Councils (Trafford, Stockport and Bury) had made clear statements that they opposed the planned scheme.
A leaflet including details of the proposed Congestion Charging plan was sent to every property in Greater Manchester during the consultation period which ran for 14 weeks from 7th July to 10th October 2008
The toll system of the Nord-Jæren package has a regional profile in the sense that the toll plazas are dispersed over the entire region. The initially 17 plazas were placed on the major roads in the region on the borders of the municipalities. One goal was that within all municipalities no one should pay to get to the centre of the municipality. The location of the toll plazas was not watertight. In some places it was possible to make detours to avoid the toll. To cope with this, some new plazas were established. Currently, 21 toll plazas are in operation. All toll plazas are fully automated with the use of the Auto-PASS system. Initially fares were differentiated, but since 2005 toll must be paid 24 hours a day all year round including weekends and holidays. Drivers are only charged for one trip per hour and there is a maximum payment of 75 trips per month for users of the Auto-Pass system.
The toll system of the Nord-Jæren package has a regional profile in the sense that the toll plazas are dispersed over the entire region. The initially 17 plazas were placed on the major roads in the region on the borders of the municipalities. One goal was that within all municipalities no one should pay to get to the centre of the municipality. The location of the toll plazas was not watertight. In some places it was possible to make detours to avoid the toll. To cope with this, some new plazas were established. Currently, 21 toll plazas are in operation.
The fee is collected from all vehicles with the following exceptions:
The original Trondheim toll ring system, implemented in 1991, went through two major revisions. Firstly, in 1998 some charging points were relocated and 6 more were added, making it into a multi zone system comprising 18 stations. A second revision of the scheme layout was made in November 2003 by adding an inner CBD (city centre) ring. This increased the number of stations to 24.
On 30 December 2005 the urban tolling system in Trondheim was turned off, nine months before the legal concession period of 15 years had elapsed. The local decision makers chose to stick to this date, even if implementation was delayed from January to October 1991. Trondheim was the third city in Norway to introduce a toll ring, following the examples of Bergen from 1986 and Oslo from 1990. So, while Bergen and Oslo have decided to continue their charging systems to finance new transport projects, Trondheim became the first Norwegian city to discontinue charging and dismantle their charging equipment.
The 1991 Toll ring The Trondheim scheme was unique in three aspects when it was introduced in 1991, (i) it was fully electronic with non-stop toll lanes from the start, (ii) it had time-differentiated charges, and (iii) only a payment per each trip option was available. The figure below shows key aspects of the toll ring. 11 new automatic toll stations were built, of which only one had additional manned operation. In addition, one existing manned motorway toll station to the east at Ranheim completed the ring. 21 of the 35 lanes leading in to the toll stations were non-stop lanes for tag holders.
The 1998 Zone Based
Tolling Scheme In June 1996, the City Council in Trondheim decided on a revised toll charging scheme. This zone-like system was fully implemented during the first months of 1998 (figure belowTwo main objectives motivated the revision of the single cordon scheme: Firstly, more revenue was needed to fulfil the transport investment plans. Secondly, a more “equitable” scheme was called for (interpreted as a system charging a higher portion of the motorists). To some extent, the revised system was designed to provide daily service facilities inside each zone. The revised fee structure included a raise in the basic charge from 10 to 12 NOK1] (1.25€ to 1.5€), extended opening hours from 5 to 6 pm, and a lowering of the maximum number of charged crossings per month from 75 to 60.
The 2004 Extended Zone
Based Tolling SchemeA second and final extension involving six additional stations closer to the city centre came into operation 1 November 2003. The basic charge level had already been raised from NOK 12 (1.5€) to NOK 15 (1.9€) on 26 February 2001. With a typical discount of 30-40 % for tag holders, this implied a price per passage of around 1.2€. The layout of the scheme which now consisted of 24 stations (or strictly speaking 26 if stations located very close together to the south are counted separately) and 59 payment lanes is shown in the next figure.
The motivation for the final revision was to cover cost overruns on a remaining highway construction project, and this solution was preferred by the politicians rather than to run the scheme for the full 15 year period until 1 October 2006, or to extend payment periods to cover evenings and weekends. Prices per passage for light vehicles during the last years of operation are shown in the t able below. Heavy vehicles (gross weight more than 3.5 tons) always paid twice the amounts charged for light vehicles. Disabled drivers, electric powered cars and public utility vehicles were exempted. The one hour rule was always in force: No vehicle was charged for more than one crossing within an hour. Also, a maximum limit of 60 chargeable crossings within a month applied.
1]1 EUR = approx. 8 NOK.
(1.25€ to 1.5€), extended opening hours from 5 to 6 pm, and a lowering of the maximum number of charged crossings per month from 75 to 60.
(1.25€ to 1.5€), extended opening hours from 5 to 6 pm, and a lowering of the maximum number of charged crossings per month from 75 to 60.
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