www.curacaoproject.eu                      CURACAO - coordination of urban road-user charging organisational issues                   Funded by the EU

Road Pricing Context

OBJECTIVES

SCHEME DESIGN

TECHNOLOGY

BUSINESS SYSTEMS

Prediction

PREDICTION

TRAFFIC EFFECTS

ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMY

EQUITY

Appraisal

APPRAISAL

Decision Making

ACCEPTABILITY

TRANSFERABILITY

Implementation and Evaluation

EVALUATION

IMPLEMENTATION

Case Studies

Bergen

Bologna

Bristol

Cambridge

Durham

Dutch National Case

Edinburgh

London

Manchester

Milan

Nord-Jaeren

Oslo

Rome

Stockholm

The Hague

Trondheim



Urban Road User Charging Online Knowledge Base

Comparison of TECHNOLOGY on our case studies

London

The system uses Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) and Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) technology.

The CCTV cameras record the vehicle registration (number plate) of all vehicles that enter the charging zone between 07:00 and 18:00, Monday to Friday. The ANPR technology converts the details captured in the image into text which can be compared to the database of valid payments, exemptions and discounts.

A typical ANPR image is shown below.




Ways to pay

The charge can be paid in a number of ways:

  • Via the world wide web1];
  • By telephone - through a contact centre;
  • In some retail outlets and petrol filling stations;
  • At self-service machines located in major car parks;
  • By post; and 
  • Users can also register to pay the charge using their mobile phone - SMS text messaging.

 


Rome



All the gates installed around Rome are integrated with cameras working twenty-four hours a day: as the camera on the e-gate detects a car, a picture of the plate is taken and sent to the control centre. The ANPR allows comparing each plate number to the “White List” database. If there is a mismatch a fine is automatically issued to that plate.



With the implementation of the system in Trastevere, called IRIDE2, the computer interface has been improved and optimised; besides a specific effort has been spent to improve the information on the service, by including the vertical signalling combined with the e-gate. This mini-VMS (Variable Message Signs) system, providing real-time information on the gate status (active or not), is now present in all the gates to support a better comprehension of city’s rules from citizens and tourists.

These new LTZ schemes are further supported by some side-measures like the Trastevere LTZ situation. In that case, during the enforcement, a dedicated shuttle service operated by electric buses connects the LTZ area with 221 slots parking.




Stockholm

The congestion tax system architecture consists of four principal components:
  • roadside equipment to collect passage information
  • pre-processors, to process the information from the control points and generate tax decisions
  • a business process platform, to book tax decisions, handle payments, reminders and reports
  • a web portal – with both a public website and an Intranet for the benefit of Customer Services and the National Tax Board.


Regarding road side equipment, the technical equipment at a control point is installed on three gantries above the carriageway and in a control cabinet at the side of the road. Columns are used instead of gantries at some control points. The first gantry is equipped with a ”Control Point” sign as well as a digital display indicating the tax charged at that particular time. Cameras installed on this gantry are used to photograph the rear number plates. The cameras used to photograph the front plates are mounted on the third gantry. Laser detectors and transceiver aerials for vehicle identification via the onboard unit are mounted on the middle gantry.


Oslo

The toll ring offers electronic toll collection with the use of on-board units, the Auto-Pass system. Until July 2008 the toll ring offered both manual payment and electronic payment. The share of manual and coin box collection in Oslo decreased from 40 percent in 1991 to approx. 20 percent in 2008. Subscribers with on-board units could either have a seasonal pass (month or year) or a number of prepaid transits (25-350) with discounts depending on the number of tickets bought. About 50 % of seasonal passes are paid by employers. With the introduction of Oslo package 3 in July 2008 all monthly and yearly passes have been removed and the maximum discount has been set to 20% per trip. In addition, the fare has been increased by 25 per cent for passenger cars (now NOK 25/ 2.75€) and by almost 90 per cent for larger vehicles (now NOK 75/ 8.20€).

In 2004 electronic toll collection was harmonized throughout Norway. Most toll roads now use the Auto-Pass system. The system will gradually be expanded further to provide for payment on ferries, for parking, etc.

The Auto-PASS concept is owned and managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). The concept covers all Auto PASS tags and Auto-PASS equipment at the charging points (Auto-PASS roadside equipment). The concept also covers all the specifications for the tags, roadside equipment, central systems, interfaces between the system elements, Auto-PASS logo and trademark, Auto-PASS contractual framework and the Auto-PASS security architecture.

The Auto-PASS Service includes both a transport and a payment service (EFC). Examples on transport services include the use of infrastructure like bridges, tunnels, motorways, road networks, road user charging schemes and ferry transport. The payment service consists of a dedicated payment system based on a user holding an Auto-PASS tag, installations at the charging points, e.g. a toll station, and a central account held and managed by the company being responsible for the payment means and contract with the user.



The public owned company, Fjellinjen AS is responsible for the toll ring. The current fees and the fees in Oslo package 2 are given in the table below. The fee is collected through 19 toll plazas in the toll ring. In addition two plazas have been put up to the west of the toll ring. Fees are only collected for inbound traffic.


Bristol

No information available.

The Hague

The main idea was to apply and test existing and new traffic detection techniques. In brief, the technical side of the project consisted in:

  • Detecting car movements (OBU devices and camera systems);
  • Storing, filtering and accessing information about car movements, participants, bonuses, etc. (data structure and database);
  • Providing information to participants as well as to project groups, and communicating within the project and with the participants (website design);
  • Collecting information about the participants’ travel decisions (logbooks);
  • Providing the participants with traffic information (travel times on the A12 from Zoetermeer towards The Hague, using Yeti smart phones).

An EVI (Electronic Vehicle Identification) system was implemented for the first time in The Netherlands in order to signal and register the participating vehicles. The EVI system performed very well: a score of 99.81% was achieved on a total of 31,585 EVI readings.

A number plate recognition camera was installed at every EVI location to record the number plate of each vehicle passing by. The camera compensated for any unsuccessful EVI registrations and thereby reduced the chance of missed registrations to nearly zero. Moreover:

  • The cameras detected all vehicles passing along the road. In order to avoid participants to use family second car and thus collect a reward while travelling during rush-hours, also the number plate of all the others family cars were registered.
  • The cameras detected all traffic and thus also measured the volumes of total traffic, which, as an additional analysis, could be used to calibrate the participants behavioural changes.

Because the EVI registration covered only four possible routes, it was necessary to identify other alternative routes from Zoetermeer towards The Hague. One of the solutions was to place additional mumber plate recognition camera systems on these routes and to identify participants trying to evade the EVI detection system.

The Spitsmijden website was used for both the internal and the external communications and was therefore an essential part of the trial. On this website, each participant had to fill in a logbook daily. The logbooks were used for analysis and compared with the detected movements.

Participants with a Yeti smart phone disposed of a website that had been customized for the trial. In this way, they were able to see the actual travel times in minutes between Zoetermeer and Prins Clausplein in The Hague. The idea was that they would have to use this information for their travel decisions.


Durham

Exit during the restricted period is controlled with an automatic bollard, which is linked to payment and permit detection apparatus. The pay machine will accept £2, £1, 50p, 20p and 10p coins. No change is given from the machine.

Drivers wishing to access the peninsula will be faced with a charge on exit. Drivers must stop at the stop line and red traffic indicator located alongside the payment machine. Following a successful transaction, the bollard will lower and, when fully retracted, the traffic signal will change to green and the driver can proceed safely out of the charged zone.

Moreover:
  • Drivers who fail to meet the charge will be permitted to proceed through the bollard system. However, a £30 (€36) charge notice is issued to the vehicle owner.
  • Vehicles will be recorded on the CCTV system and owners traced through the DVLA.
  • Drivers attempting to avoid the charge through driving out of the uncontrolled entrance will be committing a traffic offence.
  • This is monitored by the CCTV system and appropriate action will be taken against them.

Edinburgh

The charge was to be £2 (€2.40), levied no more than once per day on any single vehicle. If a vehicle were to cross both cordons, or to cross either cordon a number of times during the day, the charge would still only be applied once that day. In this sense, the scheme resembles an entry permit scheme. Arrangements for payment of the charge and enforcement of the scheme by ANPR cameras would be similar to those in place for the London congestion charging scheme.

A number of exemptions were proposed: emergency service vehicles, buses, powered two-wheelers, licensed taxis, and vehicles belonging to an approved ‘city car club’ scheme. Approved recovery vehicles were also to be exempt.

An exemption added at a late stage by the Council was that residents of the administrative area of the City of Edinburgh who live outside the outer cordon would not be liable for the outer cordon charge. It was justified by the Council on the grounds of fairness for all Edinburgh residents. However, it gave rise to considerable concern from residents of neighbouring Council areas.

Milan

The Ecopass Area has 43 entrance points, each equipped with CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) cameras designed to record vehicles entering and exiting the zone. Cameras can record licence plate numbers and pollution class with a 90% accuracy rate through automatic number plate recognition (ANPR) technology.



Each Ecopass gate has 2 built-in cameras: the first one takes pictures of all incoming vehicles, while the second identifies car plates through an OCR (Optical Character Recognition) system, for vehicle classification.




Bergen

The toll ring offers electronic toll collection with the use of on-board units, the Auto-Pass system. Subscribers with on-board units can achieve up to a 50 per cent discount depending on the amount prepaid.

In 2004 electronic toll collection was harmonized throughout Norway. Most toll roads now use the Auto-Pass system. The system will gradually be expanded further in to provide for payment on ferries, for parking, etc.

 

The Auto-PASS concept is owned and managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). The concept covers all Auto-PASS tags and Auto-PASS equipment at the charging points (Auto-PASS roadside equipment). The concept also covers all the specifications for the tags, roadside equipment, central systems, interfaces between the system elements, Auto-PASS logo and trademark, Auto-PASS contractual framework and the Auto-PASS security architecture.

The Auto-PASS Service includes both a transport and a payment service (EFC). Examples on transport services include the use of infrastructure like bridges, tunnels, motorways, road networks, road user charging schemes and ferry transport. The payment service consists of a dedicated payment system based on a user holding an Auto-PASS tag, installations at the charging points, e.g. a toll station, and a central account held and managed by the company being responsible for the payment means and contract with the user.

 

The public owned company, Bergen Bompengeselskap AS is legally responsible for the toll ring. They have outsourced (after tendering) the operation of the toll ring to Bro Tunnelselskapet AS. The current fees are given in the table below. The fee is collected through 19 toll plazas for inbound traffic.


Table 2-28 - Fare structure toll ring, 2007 (1 EURO =approx 8 NOK)

 

The fee is collected from all vehicles with the following exceptions:

  • buses in regular routes
  • emergency vehicles
  • motorcycles and mopeds
  • electric operated vehicles
  • people with a disability parking permit (must apply)

Bologna

The LTZ access is based on authorising system and since 2005 the Municipality has activated an IT-based pricing system called “SIRIO”. So 10 cameras were installed at the main LTZ access points. Between 7.00 a.m. and 8 p.m. every day except Saturday, the system automatically issues fines to car drivers not authorised to enter the LTZ. In parallel another IT system called “RITA” (14 cameras) has been put into action for controlling bus lanes 24 hours a day to avoid unauthorised cars driving in PT dedicated lanes and within the historic centre when forbidden. All the streets which give access to the city centre and the bus lanes are currently equipped with cameras in order to check if the vehicles accessing in the city centre are authorised. The cameras are able to read all car plates, check them with those contained in the database of authorised vehicles and, in case of violation, send the transgressor’s data to the Municipal Police Dept which will issue a fine. Inside the LTZ there is another area called “T”, very important for public transport; in this area the restriction are higher than in LTZ and also here the access is controlled by IT system.

Cambridge

The figure below illustrates the various components of the technology that would be used in the proposed scheme in Cambridge. The vehicle would be fitted with an ‘on board’ unit that would register the vehicle passing or entering the charging zone. The Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) transceiver and vehicle receiver unit would log entry.

This is backed up by Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras mounted on the same pole and outrigger, as shown in the figure below. Spatial matching would take place between the image read and recorded by the ANPR camera and the DSRC transaction.



The next figure shows an example of an image caught by an ANPR camera as a vehicle passes a pole and outrigger into a charging zone.


Dutch National Case



  1. Registration of car use
  2. Sending information to back office
  3. Back office for making, sending and collecting bill,
  4. client contact for questions and complaints
  5. Enforcement, supervision and for equality of rights.

Manchester

The technology proposed included both “tag and beacon” and Automatic Number Plate Recognition (APNR) for vehicles without tags. Where possible, vehicles would be fitted with a special tag which would be read automatically as the vehicle passed into and out of the charging zone.

Regular users would register to a franchised agent and payment would be debited as the car passed the active charging point.

The toll reader would be placed inside the car's windscreen and would have a slot for a smart card (much like London's Oyster card).

For occasional users, drivers would be able to pre-pay before passing active charging points.

The following information is an outline of the proposals for charges:

Charges would vary dependent on:

·          Time of day; and

·          Where the journey started and finished.

The following describes the various charges in outline:

1.     Morning peak period inbound (between the hours of 0700 and 0930, Monday to Friday) - £2 (€2.40) to cross the outer ring (M60 orbital motorway) and £1 (€1.20) to cross the inner ring (Manchester city centre);

2.     Evening peak period outbound (between the hours of 1600 and 1830, Monday to Friday) - £1 (€1.20) to cross the inner ring (Manchester city centre) and £1 (€1.20) to cross the outer ring (M60 orbital motorway);

3.     Morning peak outbound (between the hours of 0700 and 0930, Monday to Friday) – no charge;

4.     Evening peak inbound (between the hours of 1600 and 1830, Monday to Friday) - no charge;

5.     Off-peak times - no charge;
6.     Weekends and Public (Bank) Holidays - no charge; and

7.     Travel within the inner ring or outer ring boundaries – no charge at any time, peak or off-peak.

For example, the estimates were that the cost to a commuter who wished to travel at peak times from outside the M60 (the outer ring or cordon) into Manchester city centre between 0700 and 0930 and return home between 1600 and 1830, would have been no more than £5 (€6) a day. Indeed this was the maximum any user would have paid regardless of the number of trips made. There was also a proposal to ‘cap’ charges for any user, e.g. delivery vehicles, who would cross the charging rings repeatedly during any given day.

Users of the system were to be asked to register before use and vehicles that did not pay the charge or have a valid tag would be captured by ANPR enforcement cameras.

The registered vehicle owner would then be responsible for paying the charge, an administration fee and a fine. The fine was not determined.

Nord-Jaeren

The toll ring offers electronic toll collection with the use of on-board units, the Auto-Pass system. Subscribers with on-board units can achieve up to a 50 per cent discount depending on the amount prepaid.

In 2004 electronic toll collection was harmonized throughout Norway. Most toll roads now use the Auto-Pass system. The system will gradually be expanded further in to provide for payment on ferries, for parking, etc.

The Auto-PASS concept is owned and managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA). The concept covers all Auto-PASS tags and Auto-PASS equipment at the charging points (Auto-PASS roadside equipment). The concept also covers all the specifications for the tags, roadside equipment, central systems, interfaces between the system elements, Auto-PASS logo and trademark, Auto-PASS contractual framework and the Auto-PASS security architecture.

The Auto-PASS Service includes both a transport and a payment service (EFC). Examples on transport services include the use of infrastructure like bridges, tunnels, motorways, road networks, road user charging schemes and ferry transport. The payment service consists of a dedicated payment system based on a user holding an Auto-PASS tag, installations at the charging points, e.g. a toll station, and a central account held and managed by the company being responsible for the payment means and contract with the user.

Trondheim

The toll ring offered electronic toll collection with the use of on-board units and DSRC technology. Passive tags are activated by a roadside transmitter, which sends a signal to the tag that responds with its identity. This response is read by an associated receiver at the roadside, enabling a charge to be added to or deducted from a centrally held credit or debit account.

Since 2004 electronic toll collection has been harmonized throughout Norway and is owned and managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (the Auto-PASS system).