www.curacaoproject.eu                      CURACAO - coordination of urban road-user charging organisational issues                   Funded by the EU

Road Pricing Context

OBJECTIVES

SCHEME DESIGN

TECHNOLOGY

BUSINESS SYSTEMS

Prediction

PREDICTION

TRAFFIC EFFECTS

ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMY

EQUITY

Appraisal

APPRAISAL

Decision Making

ACCEPTABILITY

TRANSFERABILITY

Implementation and Evaluation

EVALUATION

IMPLEMENTATION

Case Studies

Bergen

Bologna

Bristol

Cambridge

Durham

Dutch National Case

Edinburgh

London

Manchester

Milan

Nord-Jaeren

Oslo

Rome

Stockholm

The Hague

Trondheim



Urban Road User Charging Online Knowledge Base

Case Studies

The relevant case studies for business systems are London, Edinburgh and Stockholm. Further information on the business systems developed in these cities can be found in Work Package 3; Learning from Case Studies. As London was the first scheme in the UK it was required to be failsafe and there was a time constraint in terms of establishing the system within the mayors first term of office. A single turnkey contractor was employed to supply and operate the full system. It has received criticism for being too expensive; however this is now being addressed as part of a re-tendering process. Edinburgh was able to learn from London’s experience and developed a lower cost solution to full prototype stage; however this was never implemented due to the negative referendum result. Stockholm introduced a trial scheme in the first instance and followed London’s lead in using a turnkey contractor. Similar criticisms have been made on the cost of the scheme; however now that it has been made permanent there is a recognition that costs have to be reduced. A complication in the Stockholm scheme is that the charge is classified as a tax and therefore there is greater government involvement than there would be in a standalone scheme.

Other examples of established systems include Singapore and the Norwegian toll schemes. Norwegian schemes are based around the AutoPASS tag system owned and managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The AutoPASS Service includes both a transport and a payment service for the use of infrastructure like bridges, tunnels, motorways, road networks, road user charging schemes and ferry transport. Further information can be found in the Oslo case study (see CURACAO (2008)).

The costs associated with the implementation of a business system will be of interest to planners. There are two aspects to the costs, the capital cost for building and installing the complete system and the cost associated with the operation. The latter is often expressed as a percentage of the revenue generated by the charges and provides a useful indicator for the efficiency of the system. It is difficult to provide comparable data from the relatively limited number of schemes currently in operation especially as they are quite different in structure. The Stockholm trial scheme was reported as costing SEK 1.9 billion with predicted annual operating costs of around 30% of revenue. The permanent scheme is intended to be more efficient. The cost of implementing the London scheme was in the order of £160 million and initially operating costs were 55% of revenue. Although Edinburgh did not implement its scheme it had a full design tested at prototype. The projected capital cost was £25m with annual operating costs of £9m-14m based on 120,000 daily transactions with operating costs at 20% of revenue generated. In Norway the mature tolling schemes are in the order of 6-10% and the proposed national scheme for the Netherlands has at target of 5%. Further details on these costs can be found in the case studies and from the respective city authorities.

No information on this theme is currently available from the case studies