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Urban Road User Charging Online Knowledge Base
What Are The Implications For Other Themes?There are the following implications for other themes:
• Objectives: The objectives of road pricing schemes will determine the outcome indicators that need to be gathered. This is particularly important to aid evaluation.
• Scheme design: Changes to traffic flows providing clues to enable identification of adverse impacts should subsequently enable modifications to the supporting measures which could reduce the negative impacts.
• Technology: Technology is a key enabler of allowing variable time of day pricing. The Singapore and Stockholm examples have shown that this can result in differential effects by time of day.
• Business Models: The Business Models developed need to incorporate the capability of planning regular surveys and support the collection as well as analysis of information thus gathered.
• Prediction: It is useful to compare the outputs of predicted outcomes (e.g. Eliasson et al 2009) with the actual outturn traffic flows. This enables a check on the validity of the modelling process and emphasis on this ensures that there is continued trust in the scientific work carried out. This also plays a role in enhancing acceptability.
• Environment: Changes in traffic flows and delays are important to estimate the impacts of RUC on the environment. For example, the reduction in traffic flows (e.g. in Stockholm) are generally positively correlated with improvements in the environment. Reductions in delays also reduce the need for vehicles to travel at non-optimal speeds and therefore reduce the emission of certain pollutants. However it is more difficult to directly measure the immissions which will ultimately depend on the extent of exposure of an affected population.
• Economy: It is possible to utilise classified count data to investigate changes in freight traffic movement to determine the extent of changes in this sector.
• Equity: It is possible that changes in modal use reflect equity changes as some users continue to pay and drive through the charging zone while others are forced to switch modes or redistribute to other destinations or times of travel. In general those who change modes are priced out and hence form an impact group which needs to be analysed.
• Appraisal: Since the appraisal process is carried out before the scheme is implemented, it serves as a benchmark measure to determine if the objectives of the scheme have been met using real data at the evaluation stage.
• Acceptability: Robust analysis of changes in traffic flows can be used to counter objections and lend support to the argument that road user charging can achieve the objectives of a package of policy measures.
• Transferability: The traffic impacts examined across three different countries suggest similarities in traffic impacts.. However local situation specific factors will differ and this is an important area for further research.
• Implementation: The measurement of traffic changes may help identify the need for short term remedial action following implementation.
• Evaluation: It is particularly important to emphasise the need for constant monitoring to ensure that the scheme objectives have been met. Analysing traffic flow information is particularly critical for this task.
No information on this theme is currently available from the case studies
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