www.curacaoproject.eu                      CURACAO - coordination of urban road-user charging organisational issues                   Funded by the EU

Road Pricing Context

OBJECTIVES

SCHEME DESIGN

TECHNOLOGY

BUSINESS SYSTEMS

Prediction

PREDICTION

TRAFFIC EFFECTS

ENVIRONMENT

ECONOMY

EQUITY

Appraisal

APPRAISAL

Decision Making

ACCEPTABILITY

TRANSFERABILITY

Implementation and Evaluation

EVALUATION

IMPLEMENTATION

Case Studies

Bergen

Bologna

Bristol

Cambridge

Durham

Dutch National Case

Edinburgh

London

Manchester

Milan

Nord-Jaeren

Oslo

Rome

Stockholm

The Hague

Trondheim



Urban Road User Charging Online Knowledge Base

Network & Environment

Concerning the effects of the Oslo packages on the network, Lian (2004) puts forward the following points;

  • A fully connected metro system and road lanes reserved for buses have been important and effective measures for public transport.
  • During the period 1990-2002 traffic growth has been slightly lower than the national average, in spite of strong growth in traditional drivers of mobility like population, employment and income. Thus, it is hard to claim that major road investments have induced new traffic in general in the region.
  • There is a slight reduction in travel times during morning rush hours, but no significant change in the afternoon. Increased road capacity has thus counterbalanced the growth in traffic with a small positive margin.
  • Delays vary by corridor, western and southern corridor being the worst. Road sections 10-15 km from the city centre have the largest delays. Freighters regard road accessibility to be improved.
  • Oslo Packages 1 and 2 are generally considered to be success stories (see “bullets” above), but many important transport projects will not be financed by 2008. Furthermore dismantling the Oslo Toll Ring is in the short term calculated to increase road traffic by 8-10 %. Expected traffic growth from 2001 to 2025 without the toll ring is around 30 %. Critical parts of the trunk road system (mainly some tunnels) may be overloaded by 2015. The Inner city is already considered to receive traffic flows near its capacity, in terms of road space and environmental conditions. This development may undermine the benefits of Oslo Package 1 and 2 resulting in increased and more unpredictable travel times and more traffic in residential areas and shopping streets.

One of the main reasons for the Oslo package was the local environmental problems caused by traffic and congestion in the late 80’s. On this aspect, Lian (2004) concludes that “Air pollution levels do not seem to be negatively affected by road investments. Noise nuisance is reduced where new roads are built as tunnels. Measures to improve local environment, like traffic management, reinforce environmental effects.” Overall, the effects of the Oslo packages on the local environment have been positive. This is not due to traffic reduction effects from the toll ring, but through the investments in road infrastructure. The investments have made the increase in traffic occur on the main roads rather than local roads.

Concerning global emissions, there has been a discussion to what degree improved road infrastructure induces more traffic. This may have adverse effects on the global emissions. Lian (2004) find no strong support for induced traffic from the packages.