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Network & Environment
Concerning the effects of the Oslo packages on the network, Lian (2004) puts forward the following points;
One of the main reasons for the Oslo package was the local environmental problems caused by traffic and congestion in the late 80’s. On this aspect, Lian (2004) concludes that “Air pollution levels do not seem to be negatively affected by road investments. Noise nuisance is reduced where new roads are built as tunnels. Measures to improve local environment, like traffic management, reinforce environmental effects.” Overall, the effects of the Oslo packages on the local environment have been positive. This is not due to traffic reduction effects from the toll ring, but through the investments in road infrastructure. The investments have made the increase in traffic occur on the main roads rather than local roads.Concerning global emissions, there has been a discussion to what degree improved road infrastructure induces more traffic. This may have adverse effects on the global emissions. Lian (2004) find no strong support for induced traffic from the packages.
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