Road Pricing Context
Implementation and Evaluation
Dutch National Case
Urban Road User Charging Online Knowledge Base
What Are The Implications For Other Themes?
The implications for other themes are:
- Objectives: Technology is the enabler for road user charging policies to be delivered. Policy objectives should drive the technology. First define what the system is required to do, then consider the technology.
- Scheme design: This is closely linked to technology issues. Different charging regimes might require different technologies. DSRC and ANPR technologies are most appropriate for cordon or area licence based charging, whilst variations of distance based charging would require GNSS technology.
- Business Systems: The front and back office operations of the central system are integral parts of the business system and are inextricably linked to the technological choices for charging and enforcement.
- Traffic effects: Except to the extent that certain technologies facilitate certain types of scheme design, choice of technology should not influence traffic patterns. Certain technologies may, however, facilitate the collection of traffic data.
- Prediction: Predictive work that focuses on the performance of technology may help to show which options are feasible and may also assist with technological design details.
- Environment: Certain elements of technological infrastructure might be visually intrusive (e.g. cameras and relay boxes for cables). Lateral thinking in design is helpful in integrating the technological infrastructure into the urban streetscape to reduce their impact on the environment as was done in London (Kearns, 2008a).
- Economy: Some technologies facilitate the provision of additional customer services, which may be of benefit to some business interests. Otherwise, there is unlikely to be a direct effect on the economy of choice of technology.
- Equity: Enforcement technology minimising the possibility for evasion indirectly affects equity and acceptability, since law-abiding drivers will not feel that they are paying while others are not.
- Appraisal: Keeping costs down is fundamentally essential to providing an operation with sufficient revenues to finance other elements of the integrated transport strategy.
- Acceptability: Some privacy and civil liberties concerns exist about centrally held accounts (passive tags), tracking of vehicles are being tracked and storage of data on movements (GPS based systems). The use of active tags and smart cards can provide anonymity for each transaction.
- Implementation: The choice of technology, the ease with which it can be implemented and operated, and its acceptability will be major considerations in determining whether a scheme can be readily implemented. The implementation timetable can also restrict the choice of technology.
- Evaluation: Certain technologies will facilitate the collection of data needed for evaluation. The performance of the technology will be a critical factor in any such evaluation.