Urban Road User Charging Online Knowledge Base
What Are The Implications For Other Themes?
The concept of transferability may be seen to cut horizontally across the other themes being considered in CURACAO, having potential implications for all of them. In summary:
• Objectives: Transferability issues will be important in determining the extent to which objectives of road pricing may be met in different situations. The objectives set for schemes may also differ between situations, which may have knock-on effects for other themes (e.g. scheme design and acceptability), impacting significantly on how evidence from schemes may transfer. As identified in the TRANSPLUS project, increasing transferability may potentially be seen as an explicit high level transport policy objective.
• Scheme design: The most appropriate scheme design may be expected to vary between situations due to transferability issues (an example may be the effects that network topology may have on determining the best locations for charging). In addition, the finer details of a scheme may be expected to have significant impacts on its performance, meaning that understanding the impacts of those details may be critical for assessing the success with which it may be transferred to other locations.
• Technology: The most appropriate road pricing technology to adopt in different situations may vary for many reasons, including the prevailing technological base, local geography, legal and institutional issues, variations in politics and culture etc.
• Business Systems: There is still very little information on the business systems applied to different contexts. Given this, it is too early to consider the transferability of such models.
• Prediction: Transferability and prediction are inextricably linked, because the basis of the transferability theme is the need to assess the extent to which evidence gained in one situation can be used to predict what may happen in another. For example, the accuracy of model predictions of the performance of road pricing schemes may be critically dependent on the transferability of traveller response information obtained for different schemes in different cities. Even where most model parameters are based on local data, it is still likely that some of the higher level conceptual features of any modelling framework may be based on (and potentially constrained by) expectations related to other previous situations.
• Traffic effects: At a high level, there appears to be some consistency in the levels of traffic reduction achieved in different schemes. However, detailed traffic impacts will depend on scheme design and network topology.
• Environment: Impacts on the environment should be transferable provided that vehicle fleets and built form are similar. However they are dependent on the environmental management measures adopted and the perception of impacts may vary from one culture to another
• Economy: Impacts on the economy may not always transfer easily between different situations, because they may be critically dependent on local issues, some of which may be difficult to measure. In particular, the economic impacts of road pricing on the charged area may depend on issues such as prevailing economic strength, the extent of competition from other locations and the impacts of planning processes on relocation decisions.
• Equity: Perceptions of equity may differ between cities, regions and countries based on demographic comparisons and/or political cultures, meaning that the basis for assessing equity implications of road pricing schemes may vary by situation and may not always transfer easily.
• Appraisal: The link between transferability and appraisal follows directly from the relationship with prediction, as the appraisal process is critically dependent on predicted outcomes.
• Acceptability: The acceptability of road pricing may differ between locations for many reasons, including the level of familiarity with alternative transport pricing / travel demand management approaches, prevailing perceptions of transport problems, the history of local transport planning processes (including previous occasions where road pricing may have been considered) and issues of political trust.
• Implementation: The ease with which a scheme can be implemented will depend on the political, cultural, institutional and legal context, which will differ greatly between cities.
• Evaluation: It can be anticipated that evaluations of different schemes in different cities will produce differing results, even if all schemes are found to be successful. The completion of a comprehensive evaluation after implementation will assist considerably in understanding the extent to which the experience gained can be transferred.
No information on this theme is currently available from the case studies